This is my digital notebook. I created this because I find it more convenient and easily accessible to jot down my thoughts and notes in. My posts are vague, drafts and random tidbits I gather here and there. This is the medium I use to clear my thoughts and conceptualize. Much of what I say here might not make sense. Conversations that would help make sense of things, however, are very much welcome.
Biological approaches suggest that genetics are responsible for personality.
One of the best known biological theorists was Hans Eysenck, who linked aspects of personality to biological processes.
Eysenck reported that two-thirds of therapy patients improved significantly or recovered within two year, regardless of whether or not they received psychotherapy. He was also a vocal critic of psychoanalysis, dismissing it as unscientific.
The greatest controversy surrounding Eysenck was his view of the heritability of intelligence, more specifically his view that racial differences in intelligence could be partially attributed to genetic factors.
Behavioral theories suggest that personality is a result of interaction between the individual and the environment. Behavioral theorists study observable and measurable behaviors, rejecting theories that take internal thoughts and feelings into account. Behavioral theorists include B. F. Skinnerand John B. Watson.
B. F. Skinner was an American psychologist best-known for his influence on behaviorism. Skinner referred to his own philosophy as 'radical behaviorism' and suggested that the concept of free will was simply an illusion. All human action, he instead believed, was the direct result of conditioning.
In this operant conditioning process, actions that are followed by good consequences are reinforced and therefore those behaviors are more likely to occur again in the future. Behaviors that result in negative consequences, on the other hand, become less likely to occur again.
According to John Watson, psychology should be the science of observable behavior. "Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness," he explained (1913), The "Little Albert" Experiment.
Freud believed the three components of personality were the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is responsible for all needs and urges, while the superego for ideals and moral. The ego moderates between the demands of the id, the superego, and reality. Erikson believed that personality progressed through a series of stages, with certain conflicts arising at each stage. Success in any stage depended upon successfully overcoming these conflicts.
Age Range: Birth to 1 Year
Erogenous Zone: Mouth
During the oral stage, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important.
Age Range: 1 to 3 years
Erogenous Zone: Bowel and Bladder Control
During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements.
Age Range: 3 to 6 Years
Erogenous Zone: Genitals
During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals.
Age Range: 6 to Puberty
Erogenous Zone: Sexual Feelings Are Inactive
During the latent period, the libido interests are suppressed. The development of the egoand superego contribute to this period of calm. The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies, and other interests.
Age Range: Puberty to Death
Erogenous Zone: Maturing Sexual Interests
During the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex.
What is Psychosocial Development?
Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like
Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud's theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson's theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan.