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Wednesday, June 10, 2015

Practice Exams Advance Placement Psychology Quizzes

Name: Toni Pinero
Score: 68 / 85 (80%)

Theories of Personality
http://appsychology.com/HowPass/MC%20quizes/Personality/personality.htm

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 C 
 1. 
Id is to "Just do it" as superego is to
a."Wait till later."
b."Do your own thing."
c."Don't do it."
d."Oh, sit on it."

ANSWER: 
C
 C 
 2. 
The unconscious contains
a.material that can easily be brought to awareness.
b.everything we are aware of at a given moment.
c.repressed memories and emotions.
d.thoughts, perceptions, and memories.

ANSWER: 
C
 B 
 3. 
Behavioral theories of personality are often criticized for their
a.inability to test or verify concepts.
b.limited recognition of temperament, emotion, and subjective factors.
c.ability to explain behavior after the fact only.
d.emphasis on the conditions under which behaviors occur.

ANSWER: 
B
 B 
 4. 
The concept of traits is used to account for personal characteristics that are
a.biologically determined.
b.relatively permanent and enduring.
c.situation specific.
d.shared by a group.

ANSWER: 
B
 C 
 5. 
The five-factor model of personality includes
a.social interactionism.
b.neuroticism.
c.agreeableness.
d.sense of humor.

ANSWER: 
C
 B 
 6. 
A personality theory is a(n)
a.category used to describe personality.
b.interrelated system of concepts used to explain personality.
c.relatively permanent set of behavior patterns.
d.subjective evaluation of a person.

ANSWER: 
B
 B 
 7. 
Which of the following is an unconscious personality structure made up of biological urges seeking fulfillment?
a.ego
b.id
c.superego
d.subconscious

ANSWER: 
B
 A 
 8. 
Criticisms of Freud's developmental theory have centered on
a.the over-emphasis on sexuality in personality development.
b.Freud's treatment of father-daughter relationship.
c.the need for a stern or threatening mother in the development of conscience.
d.the unimportance of the first years of life in the formation of personality.

ANSWER: 
A
 B 
 9. 
One problem psychologists have with personality types is they
a.are hypothetical constructs.
b.oversimplify personality.
c.describe character, not personality.
d.are not observable or measurable.

ANSWER: 
B
 A 
 10. 
Freud believed that personality was typified by
a.a delicate balance of power among the three personality structures.
b.a lack of struggle among the three personality structures in the healthy individual.
c.a lack of struggle among the three personality structures in the unhealthy individual.
d.a state of struggle among the three personality structures in which the id gets caught in the middle.

ANSWER: 
A
 A 
 11. 
To understand personality, trait theorists attempt to
a.create traits that fit people.
b.increase the number of basic traits that have been identified.
c.classify traits and discover how they are related to behavior.
d.reduce the common traits to measures of temperament.

ANSWER: 
C
 B 
 12. 
According to Freud, the energy from life instincts that drives personality is called the
a.ego.
b.libido.
c.life force.
d.eros.

ANSWER: 
B
 A 
 13. 
According to Freud, the id is governed by the
a.pleasure principle.
b.reality principle.
c.ego ideal.
d.creature comfort principle.

ANSWER: 
A
 B 
 14. 
Learning theorists
a.have removed the "person" from personality.
b.emphasize situational determinants of behavior.
c.stress the role of the unconscious.
d.would view a trait as stable in all situations.

ANSWER: 
B
 D 
 15. 
In the Freudian view of personality, which system is totally unconscious and dominated by biological instincts?
a.id
b.ego
c.superego
d.libido

ANSWER: 
A
 B 
 16. 
__________ theory maximized and __________ theory minimized the role of the unconscious.
a.Trait; humanistic
b.Psychoanalytic; behaviorist
c.Psychoanalytic; humanistic
d.Trait; behaviorist

ANSWER: 
B
 A 
 17. 
According to Freud, the ego is governed by the
a.pleasure principle.
b.reality principle.
c.ego ideal.
d.partial ego principle.

ANSWER: 
B
 B 
 18. 
The five-factor model of personality includes
a.social interactionism.
b.conscientiousness.
c.sense of humor.
d.neuroticism.

ANSWER: 
B
 B 
 19. 
According to Jung, art, religion, myths, and drama are important to individual functioning because they
a.facilitate conscious development.
b.are symbols that appeal to basic archetypes.
c.provide the means for achieving control over a hostile environment.
d.transmit specific information for solving developmental tasks.

ANSWER: 
B
 A 
 20. 
One of Freud's major contributions was his
a.belief that the first years of life help to shape personality.
b.belief in the concept of libido, sexual desires, and biological instincts.
c.discovery of complexes during the genital stage.
d.elaboration of the humanistic approach to personality development.

ANSWER: 
A
 D 
 21. 
What do psychologists mean by the term trait-situation interaction?
a.Situations change traits.
b.Situations create new traits.
c.Traits determine situations.
d.Situations affect how traits are exhibited.

ANSWER: 
D
 D 
 22. 
An adjective checklist would most likely be used by a
a.psychodynamic therapist.
b.behaviorist.
c.humanistic therapist.
d.trait theorist.

ANSWER: 
D
 D 
 23. 
The "amazing similarities" of identical twins may be a result of
a.the fallacy of positive instances.
b.deliberate deceit by the twins.
c.deliberate deceit by the researchers.
d.the Barnum effect.

ANSWER: 
A
 D 
 24. 
Psychologists who believe that people grow and develop throughout their lives and that people are inherently good are
a.psychoanalysts.
b.radical behaviorists.
c.social learning theorists.
d.humanists.

ANSWER: 
D
 A 
 25. 
Connie and Sue are identical twins reared apart and recently reunited. Carl and Fred are unrelated students at a major university. Which of the following statements is TRUE of these pairings?
a.Connie and Sue will probably show a long list of amazing similarities, while Carl and Fred will only share a couple of similarities.
b.Connie and Sue will probably share many similarities; Carl and Fred may share many similarities but are probably not motivated enough to discover them.
c.Connie and Sue will not share as many similarities as will Carl and Fred.
d.Connie and Sue will have more differences than will Carl and Fred.

ANSWER: 
B
 D 
 26. 
According to the humanists, __________ occurs when people are free from dependence on external authority or on other people.
a.autonomy
b.spontaneity
c.peak experience
d.task centering

ANSWER: 
A
 A 
 27. 
A psychiatrist who explains pathological behavior as a conflict between underlying psychological forces is using the __________ model.
a.psychoanalytic
b.behavioral
c.medical
d.humanistic

ANSWER: 
A
 B 
 28. 
According to behaviorists,
a.hostile, generous, or destructive impulses arise in the unconscious.
b.personality is acquired through conditioning and observational learning.
c.personality is strongly influenced by one's self-image.
d.personality develops from initial feelings of inferiority.

ANSWER: 
B
 A 
 29. 
The part of the mind that is beyond awareness is called the
a.unconscious.
b.conscious.
c.postconscious.
d.preconscious.

ANSWER: 
A
 B 
 30. 
The __________ contains material of which you may be unaware but that can easily be brought to awareness.
a.subconscious
b.preconscious
c.unconscious
d.conscious

ANSWER: 
B
 D 
 31. 
According to Freud, the key to mental health is
a.an overpowering superego.
b.an unrestrained id.
c.dominance of the pleasure principle.
d.balance among mental processes.

ANSWER: 
D
 B 
 32. 
If you know the personality of an identical twin, you can expect the personality of the other twin to be
a.unrelated.
b.similar.
c.identical.
d.conflicting.

ANSWER: 
B
 C 
 33. 
The __________ begins with puberty and ends with a mature capacity for love and the realization of full adult sexuality.
a.latency period
b.Oedipal and Electra conflicts
c.genital stage
d.phallic stage

ANSWER: 
C
 C 
 34. 
Which is included as one of the traits Maslow theorized were possessed by self-actualizers?
a.egocentrism
b.extraversion
c.superior intelligence
d.capacity to laugh at oneself

ANSWER: 
D
 C 
 35. 
We each have a perception of our own personality traits. This perception strongly influences our behavior. Psychologists call this perception
a.self-evaluation.
b.inner concept.
c.self-concept.
d.self-esteem.

ANSWER: 
C
 B 
 36. 
A key element of Carl Rogers' personality theory is the concept of
a.meta-needs.
b.the self or self-image.
c.self-reinforcement.
d.the pleasure principle.

ANSWER: 
B
 D 
 37. 
According to Freud, the Oedipal and Electra conflicts end when a child takes on the values and behaviors of the same sex parent in a process called
a.fixation.
b.imitation.
c.observation.
d.identification.

ANSWER: 
D
 C 
 38. 
Between the ages of 1 and 3 years, the child is said to go through the __________ stage.
a.phallic
b.latency
c.anal
d.genital

ANSWER: 
C
 C 
 39. 
The position that personality is composed of learned patterns is held by
a.neo-Freudians.
b.humanists.
c.behaviorists or behavioral personality theorists.
d.psychoanalytic theorists.

ANSWER: 
C
 A 
 40. 
Which theory of personality was developed by Sigmund Freud?
a.psychoanalytic
b.behavioristic
c.humanistic
d.psychosocial

ANSWER: 
A
 A 
 41. 
Freud became interested in the study of personality when he realized that
a.his patients lacked physical causes for their problems.
b.the treatment of psychological disorders was more advanced than those for physical disorders.
c.many of his patients were faking symptoms.
d.no comprehensive theories of the mind were widely accepted.

ANSWER: 
A
 C 
 42. 
Jung believed that there are basic universal concepts in all people regardless of culture called
a.persona.
b.collective consciousness.
c.archetypes.
d.mandalas.

ANSWER: 
C
 D 
 43. 
The description of a person's character implies
a.the use of rating scales.
b.the use of multiple observers.
c.the use of situational testing.
d.judgment about the desirability of traits.

ANSWER: 
D
 C 
 44. 
The main criticism of humanistic theory is that
a.it emphasizes the negative dimensions of personality.
b.it is research rather than experience oriented.
c.its concepts are imprecise and difficult to study objectively.
d.its approach is more empirical than philosophical.

ANSWER: 
C
 D 
 45. 
If self-esteem is too high, the person may be
a.boring.
b.ineffective.
c.dull.
d.arrogant.

ANSWER: 
D
 B 
 46. 
Behaviorists are to the external environment as humanists are to
a.stress.
b.personal growth.
c.humankind.
d.internal conflicts.

ANSWER: 
B
 C 
 47. 
Freud believed that at each psychosexual stage a different part of the body becomes
a.id-fixated.
b.archetypical.
c.an erogenous zone.
d.a source for modeling.

ANSWER: 
C
 C 
 48. 
Self-actualization refers to
a.a tendency that causes human personality problems.
b.what it is that makes certain men and women famous.
c.anyone who is making full use of his or her potentials.
d.the requirements necessary for becoming famous, academically distinguished, or rich.

ANSWER: 
C
 D 
 49. 
The term personality refers to
a.the hereditary aspects of one's emotional nature.
b.unique and enduring behavior patterns.
c.favorable and unfavorable personal characteristics.
d.charisma, character, or temperament.

ANSWER: 
B
 B 
 50. 
__________ theories stress private, subjective experience and personal growth.
a.Trait
b.Humanistic
c.Behavioristic
d.Psychodynamic

ANSWER: 
B
 A 
 51. 
During the first year of life, the child is said to go through the __________ stage.
a.oral
b.anal
c.genital
d.phallic

ANSWER: 
A
 B 
 52. 
Critics of psychoanalytic personality theory note its failure to
a.be able to predict future behavior.
b.provide a role for biological instincts in personality development.
c.explain psychological events after they have occurred.
d.emphasize the importance of human sexuality.

ANSWER: 
A
 C 
 53. 
Learning sex-appropriate behavior is greatly influenced by
a.self-reinforcement and resolution of unconscious conflicts.
b.identification and imitation.
c.toilet training and early feeding contacts.
d.valuing and self-regard.

ANSWER: 
B
 D 
 54. 
Which of the following is POOR advice for a person who wishes to promote self-actualization?
a.Seek peak experiences.
b.Take responsibility.
c.Be willing to change.
d.Try to live up to what others think you should be.

ANSWER: 
D
 D 
 55. 
If you were asked to describe the personality of your best friend, and you said she was optimistic, reserved, and friendly, you would be using the __________ approach.
a.psychodynamic
b.analytical
c.humanistic
d.trait

ANSWER: 
D
 D 
 56. 
The halo effect refers to
a.the technique in which the frequency of various behaviors is recorded.
b.the use of ambiguous or unstructured stimuli.
c.the process of admitting experience into consciousness.
d.the tendency to generalize a favorable or unfavorable first impression to unrelated details of personality.

ANSWER: 
D
 D 
 57. 
According to Rogers, the __________ self represents a very idealized self-image.
a.phenomenal
b.incongruent
c.archetypal
d.ideal

ANSWER: 
D
 B 
 58. 
In Freudian theory, the __________ is the "executive" structure that is directed by the reality principle.
a.id
b.ego
c.superego
d.libido

ANSWER: 
B
 C 
 59. 
According to Freud, the Oedipus and Electra conflicts occur during the
a.anal stage.
b.oral stage.
c.phallic stage.
d.genital stage.

ANSWER: 
C
 D 
 60. 
Characteristics that are shared by most members of a culture are termed
a.cardinal traits.
b.ethnic traits.
c.general traits.
d.common traits.

ANSWER: 
D
 A 
 61. 
The role "possible selves" play in our lives is to
a.provide a basis for comparing self-image and true self.
b.give us models for identification.
c.direct our behavior toward an imagined future.
d.remind us that all things are always possible.

ANSWER: 
C
 D 
 62. 
In Adler's view, the main striving of personality is for
a.dominance.
b.sophistication.
c.instincts.
d.superiority.

ANSWER: 
D
 C 
 63. 
An overly strict or harsh superego will cause
a.increasing levels of primary process thinking.
b.an antisocial personality.
c.inhibition, rigidity, or intolerable guilt.
d.a breakdown of the libido.

ANSWER: 
C
 C 
 64. 
Concerning pure extroversion and pure introversion, it is most accurate to say
a.a person is either one or the other.
b.most people fall somewhere between these extremes.
c.these terms were coined by the famous Swiss psychologist, Gordon Allport.
d.they represent basic physical traits.

ANSWER: 
B
 D 
 65. 
Classifying people as having either a Type A or Type B personality has been used to predict
a.competency as a parent.
b.chances of suffering a heart attack.
c.success in education.
d.chances of developing a serious mental illness.

ANSWER: 
B
 C 
 66. 
Rogers calls the image of the person you would like to be the
a.ego ideal.
b.self archetype.
c.ideal self.
d.reinforced self.

ANSWER: 
C
 C 
 67. 
Which personality theories attempt to explain behavior by focusing on the inner workings of the personality including internal conflicts?
a.trait
b.behavioristic
c.psychodynamic
d.humanistic

ANSWER: 
C
 D 
 68. 
Delaying action until it is appropriate describes the ego's use of the
a.pleasure principle.
b.morality principle.
c.ego ideal.
d.reality principle.

ANSWER: 
D
 A 
 69. 
The psychological situation, expectancy, and reinforcement value are important concepts in
a.social learning theory.
b.Gestalt theories.
c.radical behaviorism.
d.instrumental conditioning.

ANSWER: 
A
 A 
 70. 
__________ theorists believe humans have free will.
a.Humanistic
b.Behavioristic
c.Psychoanalytic
d.Trait

ANSWER: 
A
 C 
 71. 
In psychoanalytic theory, conscious control is experienced by the
a.pleasure principle.
b.id.
c.ego.
d.libido.

ANSWER: 
C
 A 
 72. 
Temperament refers to
a.charisma or character.
b.unique and enduring behavior patterns.
c.learned traits of emotional response.
d.hereditary emotional traits.

ANSWER: 
D
 D 
 73. 
Abraham Maslow developed the concept of self-actualization by initially studying
a.the maze-learning abilities of rats with sub-cortical lesions.
b.his own patients.
c.how children reacted to viewing aggressive role models on television.
d.people who lived unusually effective lives.

ANSWER: 
D
 A 
 74. 
Freud called an unresolved conflict caused by over-indulgence or frustration a(n)
a.fixation.
b.retentiveness.
c.incongruency.
d.expressiveness.

ANSWER: 
A
 D 
 75. 
The messy and disorderly person is described by Freud as being
a.orally retentive.
b.anally retentive.
c.a phallic personality.
d.anally expulsive.

ANSWER: 
D
 A 
 76. 
__________ traits are personality traits the comprise a person's unique individual qualities.
a.Central
b.Secondary
c.Cardinal
d.Individual

ANSWER: 
D
 B 
 77. 
Which personality theorist strongly rejected Sigmund Freud's claim that males are dominant or superior to females?
a.Alfred Adler
b.Karen Horney
c.Carl Jung
d.Erich Fromm

ANSWER: 
B
 B 
 78. 
For Freud, the time during which psychosexual development is interrupted is called the
a.phallic stage.
b.latency period.
c.Oedipal period.
d.genital stage.

ANSWER: 
B
 D 
 79. 
At what age does personality become quite stable?
a.20
b.30
c.40
d.50

ANSWER: 
B
 B 
 80. 
Suppose the ego were a hungry person in a crowded cafeteria. The ego would most likely
a.do nothing.
b.wait in line.
c.push to the head of the line.
d.feel guilty about being so hungry.

ANSWER: 
B
 B 
 81. 
Which of the following is the correct ordering of Freud's psychosexual stages?
a.anal, phallic, oral, genital
b.oral, anal, phallic, genital
c.genital, phallic, oral, anal
d.anal, oral, phallic, genital

ANSWER: 
B
 C 
 82. 
The popularity of politicians who are physically attractive may be a consequence of the
a.androgyny effect.
b.Hawthorne effect.
c.halo effect.
d.ordinal effect.

ANSWER: 
C
 D 
 83. 
Which of the following could account for a major personality change in middle adulthood?
a.moving to a new city
b.changing your looks
c.making new friends
d.a personal tragedy

ANSWER: 
D
 C 
 84. 
According to Jung, a mental storehouse for unconscious ideas and images shared by all humans is
a.the persona.
b.the personal unconscious.
c.the collective unconscious.
d.the anima.

ANSWER: 
C
 A 
 85. 
A defining characteristic of traits is that they are
a.fixed.
b.observed.
c.evaluative.
d.enduring.

ANSWER: 
D



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