My iBooks Collection

My iBooks Collection
My iBooks Collection: Some of my favorite books!

Saturday, February 1, 2014

The 14 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (APA, 1997)

In ALL my classes in my masteral program... We keep on going back to the 14 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles. At some point I began to tell myself, Learner-Centered Psychological Principles, again?!?

In everything! Assessment class, technology class, curriculum class, research class... EVERYTHING.

My masteral program is Master of Arts in Learning and Teaching.

I haven't taught in a classroom setting. Thus, I have never actually practiced anything that I learned in my masteral classes (only on paper, and when I'm tutoring and training tutors). My bachelor degree was Educational Psychology. I did not see myself teaching K-12 subjects, so I was merely an observer of all things happening in education. 

As a mere observer of things happening around me, I realized that it is no wonder my masteral program focused so much on the 14 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles. 

There is so much to change. So many practices violating the principles. So many misconceptions of what it really means to be "learner-centered". 

Thus, I realized THAT's the whole point why all my graduate school classes revolved around the 14 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles. 

The 14 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles becomes our own constitution. Same goes with lawyers (even if I hate memorizing), I have to memorize my constitution! Dang it... I hate memorizing. I always defended myself in class that memorizing was lower-order thinking skills.. Hehe... But this is the only way to go. Like in multiplication, no way out but to memorize the multiplication table.

Then from short-term memory we push it to long-term. *sigh* 

But I should eat, breath and live the Learner-Centered Psychological Principles with all my heart.

Cognitive & Metacognitive Factors
LCP#1: Nature of The Learning Process. 
The learning of a complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of constructing meaning from information and experience. 

LCP#2: Goal of the Learning Process.
The successful learner, overtime and with support and instructional guidance, can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge. 

LCP#3: Construction of Knowledge.
The successful learner can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways.

LCP#4: Strategic Thinking.
The successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals. 

LCP#5: Thinking about Thinking.
Higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operations facilitate creative and critical thinking.

LCP#6 Context of Learning.
Learning is influenced by environmental factors including culture, technology and instructional practices.

Motivational & Affective Factors.
LCP#7 Motivational and Emotional Influences on Learning.
What and how much is learned is influenced by the motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by individual's emotional states, beliefs, interests and goals, and habits of thinking. 

LCP#8 Intrinsic Motivation to Learn.
The learner's creativity, higher order thinking and natural curiosity all contribute to the motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests and providing for personal choice and control.

LCP#9 Effects of Motivation on Effort.
Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner effort and guided practice. Without the learners' motivation to learn, the willingness to exert this effort is unlikely without coercion. 

Developmental and Social Factors
LCP#10 Developmental Influences on Learning.
As individuals develop, there are different opportunities and constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional and social domains is taken into account.

LCP#11 Social Influences on Learning.
Learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations and communications with others.

Individual Differences
LCP#12 Individual Differences on Learning.
Learners have different strategies, approaches and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity

LCP#13 Learning and Diversity.
Learning is most effective when differences in learners' linguistic, cultural and social backgrounds are taken into account. 

LCP#14 Standards and Assessment.
Setting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner as well as the learning progress - including diagnostic, process and outcome assessment - are integral parts of the learning process.


This is why I love Educational Psychology. The LCP's has summed it all. Being a Learner-centered teacher can't be done overnight. That's why teachers should also be reflective teachers. Keep on reflecting and improving and learning and yada yada yada. Need to end this now. I don't want to make a speech!! :P Need to memorize the LCP's & their numbers. 

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